The chart below shows the total number of Olympic medals won by twelve different countries.
The bar chart compares twelve countries in terms of the overall number of medals that they have won at the Olympic Games.
It is clear that the USA is by far the most successful Olympic medal winning nation. It is also noticeable that the figures for gold, silver and bronze medals won by any particular country tend to be fairly similar.
The USA has won a total of around 2,300 Olympic medals, including approximately 900 gold medals, 750 silver and 650 bronze. In second place on the all-time medals chart is the Soviet Union, with just over 1,000 medals. Again, the number of gold medals won by this country is slightly higher than the number of silver or bronze medals.
Only four other countries - the UK, France, Germany and Italy - have won more than 500 Olympic medals, all with similar proportions of each medal colour. Apart from the USA and the Soviet Union, China is the only other country with a noticeably higher proportion of gold medals (about 200) compared to silver and bronze (about 100 each).(178 words, band 9)
The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of different groups and the amount of support they received from employers.
The bar charts compare students of different ages in terms of why they are studying and whether they are supported by an employer.
It is clear that the proportion of students who study for career purposes is far higher among the younger age groups, while the oldest students are more likely to study for interest. Employer support is more commonly given to younger students.
Around 80% of students aged under 26 study to further their careers, whereas only 10% study purely out of interest. The gap between these two proportions narrows as students get older, and the figures for those in their forties are the same, at about 40%. Students aged over 49 overwhelmingly study for interest (70%) rather than for professional reasons (less than 20%).
Just over 60% of students aged under 26 are supported by their employers. By contrast, the 30-39 age group is the most self-sufficient, with only 30% being given time off and help with fees. The figures rise slightly for students in their forties and for those aged 50 or more.(178 words, band 9)
The chart below shows numbers of incidents and injuries per 100 million passenger miles travelled (PMT) by transportation type in 2002.
The bar chart compares the number of incidents and injuries for every 100 million passenger miles travelled on five different types of public transport in 2002.
It is clear that the most incidents and injuries took place on demand-response vehicles. By contrast, commuter rail services recorded by far the lowest figures.
A total of 225 incidents and 173 injuries, per 100 million passenger miles travelled, took place on demand-response transport services. These figures were nearly three times as high as those for the second highest category, bus services. There were 76 incidents and 66 people were injured on buses.
Rail services experienced fewer problems. The number of incidents on light rail trains equalled the figure recorded for buses, but there were significantly fewer injuries, at only 39. Heavy rail services saw lower numbers of such events than light rail services, but commuter rail passengers were even less likely to experience problems. In fact, only 20 incidents and 17 injuries occurred on commuter trains.(165 words, band 9)
The chart below shows information about changes in average house prices in five different cities between 1990 and 2002 compared with the average house prices in 1989.
The bar chart compares the cost of an average house in five major cities over a period of 13 years from 1989.
We can see that house prices fell overall between 1990 and 1995, but most of the cities saw rising prices between 1996 and 2002. London experienced by far the greatest changes in house prices over the 13-year period.
Over the 5 years after 1989, the cost of average homes in Tokyo and London dropped by around 7%, while New York house prices went down by 5%. By contrast, prices rose by approximately 2% in both Madrid and Frankfurt.
Between 1996 and 2002, London house prices jumped to around 12% above the 1989 average. Homebuyers in New York also had to pay significantly more, with prices rising to 5% above the 1989 average, but homes in Tokyo remained cheaper than they were in 1989. The cost of an average home in Madrid rose by a further 2%, while prices in Frankfurt remained stable.
The pie charts below show how dangerous waste products are dealt with in three countries.
The charts compare Korea, Sweden and the UK in terms of the methods used in each country to dispose of harmful waste.
It is clear that in both the UK and Sweden, the majority of dangerous waste products are buried underground. By contrast, most hazardous materials in the Republic of Korea are recycled.
Looking at the information in more detail, we can see that 82% of the UK’s dangerous waste is put into landfill sites. This disposal technique is used for 55% of the harmful waste in Sweden and only 22% of similar waste in Korea. The latter country recycles 69% of hazardous materials, which is far more than the other two nations.
While 25% of Sweden's dangerous waste is recycled, the UK does not recycle at all. Instead, it dumps waste at sea or treats it chemically. These two methods are not employed in Korea or Sweden, which favour incineration for 9% and 20% of dangerous waste respectively.(159)
The pie charts below compare water usage in San Diego, California and the rest of the world.
The pie charts give information about the water used for residential, industrial and agricultural purposes in San Diego County, California, and the world as a whole.
It is noticeable that more water is consumed by homes than by industry or agriculture in the two American regions. By contrast, agriculture accounts for the vast majority of water used worldwide.
In San Diego County and California State, residential water consumption accounts for 60% and 39% of total water usage. By contrast, a mere 8% of the water used globally goes to homes. The opposite trend can be seen when we look at water consumption for agriculture. This accounts for a massive 69% of global water use, but only 17% and 28% of water usage in San Diego and California respectively.
Such dramatic differences are not seen when we compare the figures for industrial water use. The same proportion of water (23%) is used by industry in San Diego and worldwide, while the figure for California is 10% higher, at 33%.
(168 words, band 9)
The charts below show the results of a questionnaire that asked visitors to the Parkway Hotel how they rated the hotel's customer service. The same questionnaire was given to 100 guests in the years 2005 and 2010.
The pie charts compare visitors’ responses to a survey about customer service at the Parkway Hotel in 2005 and in 2010.
It is clear that overall customer satisfaction increased considerably from 2005 to 2010. While most hotel guests rated customer service as satisfactory or poor in 2005, a clear majority described the hotel’s service as good or excellent in 2010.
Looking at the positive responses first, in 2005 only 5% of the hotel’s visitors rated its customer service as excellent, but this figure rose to 28% in 2010. Furthermore, while only 14% of guests described customer service in the hotel as good in 2005, almost three times as many people gave this rating five years later.
With regard to negative feedback, the proportion of guests who considered the hotel’s customer service to be poor fell from 21% in 2005 to only 12% in 2010. Similarly, the proportion of people who thought customer service was very poor dropped from 15% to only 4% over the 5-year period. Finally, a fall in the number of ‘satisfactory’ ratings in 2010 reflects the fact that more people gave positive responses to the survey in that year.(193 words, band 9)
The chart below shows the results of a survey of people who visited four types of tourist attraction in Britain in the year 1999.
The pie chart compares figures for visitors to four categories of tourist attraction and to five different theme parks in Britain in 1999.
It is clear that theme parks and museums / galleries were the two most popular types of tourist attraction in that year. Blackpool Pleasure Beach received by far the highest proportion of visitors in the theme park sector.
Looking at the information in more detail, we can see that 38% of the surveyed visitors went to a theme park, and 37% of them went to a museum or gallery. By contrast, historic houses and monuments were visited by only 16% of the sample, while wildlife parks and zoos were the least popular of the four types of tourist attraction, with only 9% of visitors.
In the theme park sector, almost half of the people surveyed (47%) had been to Blackpool Pleasure Beach. Alton Towers was the second most popular amusement park, with 17% of the sample, followed by Pleasureland in Southport, with 16%. Finally, Chessington World of Adventures and Legoland Windsor had each welcomed 10% of the surveyed visitors.
(181 words, band 9)
The table below shows changes in the numbers of residents cycling to work in different areas of the UK between 2001 and 2011.
The table compares the numbers of people who cycled to work in twelve areas of the UK in the years 2001 and 2011.
Overall, the number of UK commuters who travelled to work by bicycle rose considerably over the 10-year period. Inner London had by far the highest number of cycling commuters in both years.
In 2001, well over 43 thousand residents of inner London commuted by bicycle, and this figure rose to more than 106 thousand in 2011, an increase of 144%. By contrast, although outer London had the second highest number of cycling commuters in each year, the percentage change, at only 45%, was the lowest of the twelve areas shown in the table.
Brighton and Hove saw the second biggest increase (109%) in the number of residents cycling to work, but Bristol was the UK’s second city in terms of total numbers of cycling commuters, with 8,108 in 2001 and 15,768 in 2011. Figures for the other eight areas were below the 10 thousand mark in both years.
(172 words, band 9)
The table below shows the proportion of different categories of families living in poverty in Australia in 1999.
The table gives information about poverty rates among six types of household in Australia in the year 1999.
It is noticeable that levels of poverty were higher for single people than for couples, and people with children were more likely to be poor than those without. Poverty rates were considerably lower among elderly people.
Overall, 11% of Australians, or 1,837,000 people, were living in poverty in 1999. Aged people were the least likely to be poor, with poverty levels of 6% and 4% for single aged people and aged couples respectively.
Just over one fifth of single parents were living in poverty, whereas only 12% of parents living with a partner were classed as poor. The same pattern can be seen for people with no children: while 19% of single people in this group were living below the poverty line, the figure for couples was much lower, at only 7%.(150 words, band 9)
The graph below shows the proportion of the population aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in three different countries.
The line graph compares the percentage of people aged 65 or more in three countries over a period of 100 years.
It is clear that the proportion of elderly people increases in each country between 1940 and 2040. Japan is expected to see the most dramatic changes in its elderly population.
In 1940, around 9% of Americans were aged 65 or over, compared to about 7% of Swedish people and 5% of Japanese people. The proportions of elderly people in the USA and Sweden rose gradually over the next 50 years, reaching just under 15% in 1990. By contrast, the figures for Japan remained below 5% until the early 2000s.
Looking into the future, a sudden increase in the percentage of elderly people is predicted for Japan, with a jump of over 15% in just 10 years from 2030 to 2040. By 2040, it is thought that around 27% of the Japanese population will be 65 years old or more, while the figures for Sweden and the USA will be slightly lower, at about 25% and 23% respectively.(178 words, band 9)
The graph below shows changes in global food and oil prices between 2000 and 2011.
The line graph compares the average price of a barrel of oil with the food price index over a period of 11 years.
It is clear that average global prices of both oil and food rose considerably between 2000 and 2011. Furthermore, the trends for both commodities were very similar, and so a strong correlation (93.6%) is suggested.
In the year 2000, the average global oil price was close to $25 per barrel, and the food price index stood at just under 90 points. Over the following four years both prices remained relatively stable, before rising steadily between 2004 and 2007. By 2007, the average oil price had more than doubled, to nearly $60 per barrel, and food prices had risen by around 50 points.
A dramatic increase in both commodity prices was seen from 2007 to 2008, with oil prices reaching a peak of approximately $130 per barrel and the food price index rising to 220 points. However, by the beginning of 2009 the price of oil had dropped by roughly $90, and the food price index was down by about 80 points. Finally, in 2011, the average oil price rose once again, to nearly $100 per barrel, while the food price index reached its peak, at almost 240 points.(211)
The graph below shows the amounts of waste produced by three companies over a period of 15 years.
The line graph compares three companies in terms of their waste output between the years 2000 and 2015.
It is clear that there were significant changes in the amounts of waste produced by all three companies shown on the graph. While companies A and B saw waste output fall over the 15-year period, the amount of waste produced by company C increased considerably.
In 2000, company A produced 12 tonnes of waste, while companies B and C produced around 8 tonnes and 4 tonnes of waste material respectively. Over the following 5 years, the waste output of companies B and C rose by around 2 tonnes, but the figure for company A fell by approximately 1 tonne.
From 2005 to 2015, company A cut waste production by roughly 3 tonnes, and company B reduced its waste by around 7 tonnes. By contrast, company C saw an increase in waste production of approximately 4 tonnes over the same 10-year period. By 2015, company C’s waste output had risen to 10 tonnes, while the respective amounts of waste from companies A and B had dropped to 8 tonnes and only 3 tonnes.(192 words, band 9)
The climograph below shows average monthly temperatures and rainfall in the city of Kolkata.
The chart compares average figures for temperature and precipitation over the course of a calendar year in Kolkata.
It is noticeable that monthly figures for precipitation in Kolkata vary considerably, whereas monthly temperatures remain relatively stable. Rainfall is highest from July to August, while temperatures are highest in April and May.
Between the months of January and May, average temperatures in Kolkata rise from their lowest point at around 20°C to a peak of just over 30°C. Average rainfall in the city also rises over the same period, from approximately 20mm of rain in January to 100mm in May.
While temperatures stay roughly the same for the next four months, the amount of rainfall more than doubles between May and June. Figures for precipitation remain above 250mm from June to September, peaking at around 330mm in July. The final three months of the year see a dramatic fall in precipitation, to a low of about 10mm in December, and a steady drop in temperatures back to the January average.(173 words, band 9)
The bar chart below shows the proportions of English men and women of different ages who were living alone in 2011. The pie chart compares the numbers of bedrooms in these one-person households.
Living alone in England by age and gender, 2011.Number of bedrooms in one-person households (England, 2011)
The two charts give information about single-occupant households in England in the year 2011. The bar chart compares figures for occupants' age and gender, and the pie chart shows data about the number of bedrooms in these homes.
Overall, females made up a higher proportion of people living alone than males, and this difference is particularly noticeable in the older age categories. We can also see that the most common number of bedrooms in a single-occupant home was two.
A significant majority of the people aged 65 or over who were living alone in England in 2011 were female. Women made up around 72% of single occupants aged 75 to 84, and 76% of those aged 85 or over. By contrast, among younger adults the figures for males were higher. For example, in the 35-49 age category, men accounted for nearly 65% of people living alone.
In the same year, 35.4% of one-person households in England had two bedrooms, while one-bedroom and three-bedroom homes accounted for 28% and 29.8% of the total. Under 7% of single-occupant homes had four or more bedrooms.
(189 words, band 9)